What is it Wednesday | Bob's Red Mill

What is it? Wednesday: Xanthan Gum

by Cassidy Stockton in Featured Articles, Gluten Free, What is it? Wednesday

We are very excited to bring you What is it? Wednesdays! Every other Wednesday, we’ll explore a different ingredient or product in depth. We’ll be covering the benefits, uses and common misconceptions about each. If you have any requests, leave them in the comments and we’ll work them into the schedule. 


I freely admit that I bit off a little more than I intended with this topic. Xanthan gum is a hard one! It has an unusual origin and many, varied applications. We’ll see if I can clear anything up or if I just make it more confusing! Thank you to everyone who submitted questions on Facebook. We had over 80 submissions and they all break down into these basic questions. If you have more questions, leave ‘em in the comments and we’ll get to them.

What is it? Wednesday: Xanthan Gum | Bob's Red Mill

What is Xanthan Gum? The short, basic version is that xanthan gum is a coating from a particular bacteria- Xanthomonas campestris. This bacteria grows a protective coating. Think of it like an orange peel or the skin of an onion. It’s a protective layer. When fed a particular food, this bacteria’s coating becomes very sticky and makes a great binding and thickening agent in baking. I can get super technical about this, but I don’t think that is necessary. Scientists harvest this sticky layer, dry it out and sell it as a food additive. End of story.

What is this “particular food” mentioned above? Most commonly, Xanthomonas campestris is fed glucose (sugar) derived from corn, soy or wheat. This glucose comes from the starch of the plant and contains no protein, which means if you have a corn, soy or wheat allergy, you can likely enjoy xanthan gum. The bacteria that grows our xanthan gum is fed wheat glucose. There is no gluten in our xanthan gum. 

Why use Xanthan Gum? This is a slightly bigger question. Xanthan gum works well in place of gluten (a protein found in wheat, rye and barley that some people cannot tolerate). Xanthan gum helps trap the air bubbles created by leavening agents (baking soda, baking powder, yeast) to allow your breads and baked goods to rise. It helps thicken liquids, which is why it is often found in salad dressings and sauces. This thickening action helps hold gluten free baked goods together and keeps them from becoming too crumbly.

How is it different from Guar Gum? We’ll do a whole post on Guar Gum soon, but a short answer is that they’re made from two different sources- xanthan gum from a bacteria and guar gum from a seed native to Asia. In the kitchen, there are important differences in using xanthan gum versus guar gum. In general, guar gum is good for cold foods such as ice cream or pastry fillings, while xanthan gum is better for baked goods, especially those that use yeast. Foods with a high acid content (such as lemon juice) can cause guar gum to lose its thickening abilities. For recipes involving citrus you will want to use xanthan gum. Read more about how they are different and similar in this post: Guar Gum vs Xanthan Gum.

How should I use Xanthan Gum? Generally, we recommend the following. Every recipe is different. Too little xanthan gum and your baked goods will be crumbly, too much and they’ll be rubbery. If you’re just getting started, we highly recommend following a recipe that calls for xanthan gum to get the hang of how much to use and when.

Cookies………………………………¼ teaspoon per cup of flour
Cakes and Pancakes………………..½ teaspoon per cup of flour
Muffins and Quick Breads………… ¾ teaspoon per cup of flour
Breads……………………………….1 to 1-½ teaspoons per cup of flour
Pizza Dough…………………..…… 2 teaspoons per cup of flour
For Salad Dressings…½ teaspoon Xanthan Gum per 8 oz. of liquid

For liquids, it is best to add xanthan gum to the oil component in a recipe, making complete mix of oil and gum before adding to the rest of liquid ingredients. Using a blender or a food processor is a great way to get the gums to dissolve properly.

Why does it cost so much? This answer is based on speculation, as it’s very hard to pinpoint why some ingredients are expensive. Based on what I know about our ingredients from our Purchasing Department, it is expensive because it is costly to produce (we’re talking specialized labs that must grow, then harvest, this ingredient) and there is a limited supply. Yes, it’s spendy at approximately $15 for a half-pound, but you use very little in a recipe and a bag should last you 6 months (depending on how much you bake).

What is it? Wednesday: Xanthan Gum | Bob's Red Mill

Xanthan gum is messy, what is the best way to clean it up? I find this question slightly amusing because gluten is very messy and hard to clean up, so it seems rather fitting that its replacement would be equally so. I couldn’t find any good tips for how to clean it up, but one customer did recommend sodium persulfate for cleaning up xanthan gum that has gelled with water. I don’t know who has this laying around the kitchen, but I don’t. I have also heard that peroxide is promising (turns out our awesome test kitchen gals are working on this), so you could try that. No matter what, it’s a total disaster. If you have a good tip, PLEASE SHARE IT WITH US!

How does it affect my body and why can’t some people tolerate it? There have not been any significant studies to determine what effect xanthan gum has on humans, but I did find a good article that talks about the studies that have been done. It appears that there is little to support xanthan gum being harmful to adults, but it should not be fed to infants.

More and more, I meet people who cannot have xanthan gum. It upsets their stomach, causes gas, bloating and diarrhea. These are not all people who follow a gluten free diet. I have heard from several gluten free customers who initially blamed their issues on gluten, but later realized it was actually the xanthan gum. The symptoms are very similar. You’ll see that more and more gluten free food bloggers are not using xanthan gum and are opting to use an alternative or leave it out altogether.

What are some alternatives to Xanthan Gum? First, there is guar gum. It works essentially the same way, but you typically use more guar gum than xanthan gum. The people who cannot tolerate xanthan gum often have similar issues with guar gum. Other people are using psyllium seed husk, chia seed, flaxseed or a combination of these. These work because of their high soluble fiber. When you add water, these ingredients gel up. This works well for binding and thickening for most recipes. Our friend Jean Layton, blogger and naturopath, swears by her Pixie Dust. Her recipe, found here, combines psyllium husk powder, flaxseeds and chia seeds and produces marvelous results (we should know, we tested it to find out!). Depending on the recipe, you can sometimes get away with just leaving it out. Some recipes will be just fine without it. It takes experimentation, but, hey, that’s what gluten free baking is all about!

I hope this helps clear up some of the major questions. As I said above, if you have any others, please, leave them in the comments and I’ll do my best to tackle them.

About The Author
Cassidy Stockton Google: Cassidy Stockton
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13 Responses to “What is it? Wednesday: Xanthan Gum”

  1. The source of growth medium to produce the xanthan gum, can be wheat, corn, soy or whey(dairy). Is it possible to disclose this source info on your packaging at Bobs Red Mill? or at least post a warning to those of us who have allergies to any/all of these ingredients? I find it frustrating that it can be called “gluten free” when the growth medium for this product CAN be wheat. Wikipedia even warns against anyone consuming this product with ANY of these allergies…as per Wikipedia xanthan gum page
    Xanthan gum may be derived from a variety of source products that are themselves common allergens, such as corn, wheat, dairy, or soy. As such, persons with known sensitivities or allergies to food products are advised to avoid foods including generic xanthan gum or first determine the source for the xanthan gum before consuming the food.
    To be specific, an allergic response may be triggered in people sensitive to the growth medium, usually corn, soy, or wheat.For example, residual wheat gluten has been detected on xanthan gum made using wheat. This may trigger a response in people highly sensitive to gluten.

    • We are very forthcoming about the growth medium for our xanthan gum- wheat. It has not produced allergic reactions, but if you are concerned we urge you to not eat it. Try guar gum instead.

  2. Nice Blog! this blog provides useful information about Xanthan gum and Guar Gum. Xanthan Gum is an alternative of Guar Gum. You know that Guar Gum is a natural product and xanthan gum is a laboratory product.

  3. I was horrified to discover recently that you make your xanthan gum with wheat and don’t disclose that even as you call it the ideal substitute for gluten in baking. I have celiac disease and react violently to xanthan gum. It took a long time to figure this out -many tests did not uncover why I was still having symptoms on a very strict diet until I made a batch of holiday cookies using Bob’s Red Mill Xanthan Gum as well as some of your other flours and got violently ill. The gum was the only ingredient I didn’t regularly use. When I learned that other celiacs had problems with Xanthan Gum it did not even occur to me that it might be made with wheat. I have had products from other companies marketed as gluten free only to get sick and then discover that barley was used -the company protested that they had tested the product and the gluten level was below the legal definition, but that didn’t matter -I still got sick. Cassidy’s response urging you not to eat it if it makes you sick is unacceptable if you don’t clearly disclose on the packaging what it is made from. Please TAKE RESPONSIBILITY for your product and include on the front label that it is made with wheat. Many people will not know to avoid it, and you will continue to make many people sick in the meantime.

    • Michele,

      We are so sorry to hear your story. I am so glad that you’ve found out that xanthan gum is not something you can consume. I will pass along your comments to our quality assurance team. Thank you for sharing your experience with us. I will say that I have trouble digesting xanthan gum and no problem digesting gluten, so I do not think it’s an across-the-board gluten issue for everyone (I am not saying that this is your situation). There is no gluten protein used in the production of xanthan gum, but I appreciate your concerns and think you have a very valid point. Again, thank you for sharing this with us.

  4. Michele is not alone, only bobs red mill xanthem gum makes my family sick. Coincidence? I think not. Sensitive Celiacs cannot consume anything derived from wheat, even though so called experts say that it is safe. not alcohol, not anything, and certainly not Bobs Red Mill xanthem gum. I am making it my personal crusade to get you to change this. My son just was sick for 3 days and missed work because a family member put the Bobs xanthem gum in some cookies and fed them to him unsuspecting. You cannot assume you are not hurting people. Do not call it gluten free, if it is derived from a wheat source. How many people are you keeping sick?

  5. Thanks for posting this! Ive found it very helpful. My family and I love your products! My mom has an issues with wheat but can and does use your products. My dad is on a gluten free diet and your products actually make him feel better as your products dont contain bromide which gives him chest pains.. keep up the great work!

  6. Do you use dairy (whey) as the medium for any of your xanthan gum? I have a severe dairy allergy and am on a strict diet, but still getting symptoms from something. I have been tested for allergies to everything I eat and dairy is the only thing so far that I have had an allergy to, desperate to find what has dairy in it that I am still being exposed to. Thanks for your help.

    • Hi Caroline,

      No, we do not use dairy at all with our xanthan gum. We do not even have any dairy in our gluten free facility. It’s possible, though, that you can’t tolerate xanthan gum. That’s not uncommon and can cause similar gut reactions. If you’re having anaphylactic reactions, it’s probably something else, not the xanthan gum. Never hurts to try cutting it out for a month, though, and see if you feel better. Good luck on your search!

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